Heilongjiang Nongken Hengyun Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
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Address: Shuguang farm, Huanan County, Heilongjiang province.
Machinery subsoiling technology - paddy field plough manufacturers
Mechanical subsoiling technology refers to the mechanization technology which uses different power machinery to complete the subsoiling operation of farmland. The purpose of mechanical subsoiling is to loosen the soil, break down the plough bottom, increase the infiltration rate and quantity of rainwater, reduce runoff and water evaporation loss. Because mechanical subsoiling is only loose soil, not turning the soil, so that after the operation of the plough layer of soil disorder, small amount of soil movement, so particularly suitable for shallow black soil, not suitable for ploughing operation of the soil.
Mechanical subsoiling can be divided into two types: local subsoiling and comprehensive subsoiling. Total subsoiling is to use a subsoiling plough to completely loosen the soil. This method is suitable for the transformation of shallow soil with farmland infrastructure construction. Partial subsoiling is the use of bar teeth, chisel shovels or plough to separate the loosen soil from the loosen soil. Because interval subsoiling creates the plough layer structure of virtual and solid coexistence, practice has proved that interval subsoiling is superior to comprehensive subsoiling and is widely used.
At present, the main methods of soil subsoiling in production are interval subsoiling, ridge subsoiling, intermediate subsoiling, shallow subsoiling, ridge plowing subsoiling, and comprehensive subsoiling. According to the structure principle of the working machine tool, it can be divided into chisel type deep loosening, wing shovel type deep loosening, vibration deep loosening, goose paw type deep loosening and so on. Different subsoiling machines have different structural characteristics and operation performance, and the suitable soil and cultivated land types also have certain changes. Generally speaking, the purpose of comprehensive subsoiling is to loosen the soil and break the plough bottom. The main purpose of partial subsoiling is to break the plough bottom and store water. Some kinds of machines have the characteristics of local and comprehensive deep loosening, such as omni-directional deep loosening machine, vibrating deep loosening machine and so on.
I. Principles of subsoiling
1. Mechanical subsoiling operations should be based on soil moisture, soil texture, in general, deep plough, no roots, stones and other hard material plots should be deeper, or shallower.
2. The soil moisture content is higher in the working season, and the more viscous plots are not suitable for subsoiling operation, especially the omni-directional subsoiling operation, so as to prevent the hard and solidified ridges from occurring next year and unable to cultivate.
3. The depth of subsoiling can be determined according to different purposes and different soil textures. For general soil, the purpose of breaking the plough bottom and increasing the capacity of water storage and moisture conservation is to select the depth of 35-45 cm according to the soil plough condition. It is not suitable to be too shallow less than 25 cm, so as to facilitate the formation and construction of soil reservoirs.
4. Mechanical subsoiling should advocate the principle of all-round subsoiling in autumn, supplemented by local subsoiling in summer.
5. In order to obtain the ideal quality of deep loosening operation, the throttle should be as large as possible on the gear that the main engine can pull normally.
Two. Agronomic requirements for mechanical subsoiling.
1. Time of subsoiling operation: All-round subsoiling must be carried out after autumn, partial subsoiling can be carried out after autumn or straw treatment before sowing, and then subsoiling operation; summer subsoiling operation, wide row crops (maize) in seedling stage, seedling operation should be carried out as soon as possible, maize should not be later than 5-leaf stage, narrow row crops, in sowing. Go ahead. However, in order to ensure the depth uniformity of CLOSE-PLANTED crops, topsoil operations such as raking should be carried out after loosening, or deep loosening with wings should be used to loosen the lower interval, and the surface layer should be fully loosened.
2. Soil suitable cultivation conditions: soil moisture content is 15-22%.
3. The depth of subsoiling operation: seedling operation depth, corn 23-30 cm, tobacco 25-30 cm, autumn operation depth of 30-40 cm. The depth of drainage improvement in saline alkali soil is 35-50 cm.
4, operation cycle, according to soil conditions and machine strength, generally 2~4 years subsoiling.
5. The depth of subsoiling should be uniform and not loose. When summer is deep loose, the base fertilizer should be applied at the same time.
Three, the benefits of mechanical subsoiling.
Submerged water storage technology can effectively improve soil water storage capacity, fully accept natural precipitation, and establish soil reservoirs. It will play an important role in solving the bottleneck of agricultural restriction in arid areas and promoting the development of agricultural production.
1. It can effectively break the hard plough bottom formed by ploughing or cutting stubble for a long time, and effectively improve the permeability and air permeability of soil. The volume density of soil after subsoiling is 12-13g/cm 3, which is just suitable for the growth and development of crops, and is beneficial to the root system of crops. The depth of mechanical subsoiling can reach 35-50cm, which is simply impossible to reach by other farming methods.
2. Mechanical subsoiling can greatly improve the ability of soil to store rainwater and snow water. In dry season, it can also raise soil moisture from the soil layer and increase the water storage of the tillage layer.
3. The subsoiling operation only loosens the soil, does not turn over the soil, therefore is especially suitable for the black soil layer shallow, is not suitable for the ploughing operation the land block, this has provided the good method for the cultivation layer shallower area and the grassland improvement, the original grassland vegetation is not destroyed, therefore does not affect the grazing in that year.
4. Compared with other operations, mechanical subsoiling has smaller resistance, higher efficiency and lower operating cost. Because of its unique structural characteristics, the working resistance of the subsoiler is significantly less than that of the plough plough, and the reduction is 1/3. This leads to higher efficiency and lower operating costs. According to the calculation, the oil consumption per mu in general plots is only 0.7-0.8L, the operation cost is about 6-8 yuan per mu, and the work efficiency can reach 20-30 hectares per day depending on the type of machine.
5. Mechanical subsoiling can make rainwater and snow seepage under water, and preserve in 0-150 cm soil layer, forming a huge soil reservoir, so that rain, winter and snow in spring, dry use, to ensure sowing moisture. Generally speaking, the subsoiled plots can store 35-52 mm more water in 0-100 cm soil layer than the non-subsoiled plots, and the average water content of 0-20 cm soil is 2-7% higher than that of the traditional cultivation conditions, which can ensure the emergence rate of seedlings from one-time sowing.
6. Loosening and not turning the soil can maintain the vegetation cover of the ground surface, prevent soil erosion and soil erosion, be conducive to the protection of the ecological environment, reduce the sand and floating dust weather caused by soil bareness due to land ploughing, and reduce environmental pollution.
7. Mechanized subsoiling is suitable for all kinds of soil, especially in low and medium yield fields. The average yield increase of maize was about 10-15%; soybean was about 15-20%; tobacco leaf was about 5-15%; subsoiling could increase the utilization rate of irrigation water by at least 30%.