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Crop rotation fallow new impetus for green development of agriculture and achieved remarkable results.
In September 8th, the Information Office of the Ministry of Agriculture held a news conference on the progress of "farmland rotation and fallow system pilot". Zeng Yande, Director of the Planting Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, introduced the progress of the pilot project of the cropland rotation system. Zhang Jianyong, Deputy Director of Jiangsu Agricultural Commission, introduced the pilot practice of the cropland rotation system in the province.
It is reported that since last year, the Ministry of Agriculture, together with 10 departments and units such as the Ministry of Finance, the Development and Reform Commission and the Central Agricultural Office, has made positive progress in promoting the pilot system of cropland rotation and fallow in 9 provinces (autonomous regions) in China.
Comprehensive participation in the formation of joint efforts pilot results are obvious
Zeng Yande said that in the past two years, the experimental implementation of the system of cropland rotation and fallow has made positive progress in terms of organizational mode and technical mode.
First of all, we have explored effective working mechanisms. For example, Heilongjiang Province centralized rotation tasks in the third, fourth and fifth accumulated temperate zones to guide and supervise planting; Inner Mongolia Arong Banner centralized 300,000 Mu rotation tasks in 18 new management entities, and signed a 200,000 Mu rotation of sorghum with grain processing enterprises.
Secondly, we explore the integration of rotation fallow technology mode. In the rotation area, the combination of "one master" and "multi support" should be implemented. "One main" is corn and soybean wheel as the main body, giving play to the role of soybean nodule in nitrogen fixation and land conservation. "Dofu" is the practice of corn and potatoes, miscellaneous grains and beans, oil crops, vegetables and forage crops rotation. In the fallow area, protection and management should be equally emphasized. In Hebei groundwater funnel area, "one-season rainfed, one-season fallow" is implemented, and green manure is planted in fallow season to prevent surface bareness. Hunan Heavy Metal Pollution Area vigorously carried out the treatment of fallow, fallow, control, fertilization synchronized, forming a "three-in-one fallow" fallow mode.
Third, the policy system of rotation fallow has been further improved. In rotation, we should pay more attention to comparative benefits. According to the current yield level and planting benefit, the corn-soybean rotation in the rotation mode can be calculated according to the benefit balance point of 1:3. Other rotation modes can be dynamically adjusted according to the income of the previous year and combined with market changes. In fallow farming, we should pay attention to income protection. At present, the standard of subsidy is based on the premise that income is not reduced. Generally speaking, the subsidy of one cropping area is about 500 yuan per mu, and the subsidy of two cropping areas is about 800 yuan per mu, which is slightly higher than the cost of land circulation.
Zeng Yande especially pointed out that through the development of crop rotation, pressure mining in fallow areas and remediation of heavy metal pollution, the adjustment of planting structure and the control of agricultural environmental problems were promoted. The first is the optimization of planting structure. In 2016, the area of grain maize was reduced by about 30000000 mu, and the amount of soybeans increased by about 10000000 mu. It is estimated that the corn area will be reduced by more than 20 million mu in 2017, relieving the pressure of corn inventory. Two is the improvement of the ecological environment. Maize and soybean rotation were carried out to improve soil physical and chemical properties and improve soil fertility level. Planting green manure and other crops in fallow season has played an active role in windbreak and sand fixation, water conservation and protection of tillage layer.
The three is efficient utilization of resources. The experiment of wheat fallow cultivation in the groundwater funnel area of Hebei Province reduced water consumption by 180 cubic meters per mu on average and exploited 320 million cubic meters of groundwater under reduced pressure. Jilin Province carried out maize-soybean rotation in the eastern cold region, saving about 30% fertilizer and 50% pesticide per mu, and maize-grain rotation in the Western drought-prone region, saving about one third of water per mu.
Zeng Yande said that the results of the experiment on the system of cropland rotation and fallow are not only reflected in the above-mentioned aspects, but also reflected in the local initiative and the farmers'voluntary participation, forming a good situation of linkage from top to bottom and multi-party participation. Local initiatives and farmers' conscious participation have formed a good momentum of interaction and participation.
Zhang Jianyong said that since the Ministry of Agriculture implemented the pilot system of cropland rotation, Jiangsu has taken the lead in carrying out the pilot system of cropland rotation and fallow at the provincial level in view of the fact that there are few cultivated land resources, high utilization intensity and heavy production load. In 2016, Jiangsu Province financially allocated 50 million yuan to carry out the provincial experiment of cropland rotation and fallow system, focusing on the areas along the Yangtze River and southern Jiangsu where wheat scab is prone to occur again and production efficiency is low, the areas with poor soil fertility such as hilly and hilly areas, the areas with serious salinization of coastal beaches, and the areas with soil acidification and nutrient. We should take a pilot first in the areas of ecological deterioration such as non equalization. Through one year's experiment, the effect is very good, especially in the winter fertilization and rotation process, no wheat, planted green manure rape, legume plants, promote the development of leisure tourism agriculture. Zhang Jianyong said that the pilot project in Jiangsu Province was expanded to 20 counties this year. He hoped that the article on crop rotation and fallow would be made bigger and better, so that agriculture could develop continuously, and the land output and the quality and safety of agricultural products in Jiangsu Province would be improved obviously.