Heilongjiang Nongken Hengyun Agricultural Machinery Manufacturing Co., Ltd.
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Contact: Mr. Song
Address: Shuguang farm, Huanan County, Heilongjiang province.
Rice: rapid upgrading of harvesting mechanization and slow promotion of machine transplanting.
The main rice producing areas in the world are concentrated in Asia. The rice sown area in Asia accounts for nearly 90% of the world's rice production and 91% of the world's rice output. India, China, Indonesia, Bangladesh and Thailand are the countries with the largest rice sown area in the world. China's rice sown area occupies the second place in the world, and its yield is the first in the world. According to statistics, the comprehensive mechanization rate of rice in China is nearly 78%, of which the ploughing rate is over 98% and the yield is over 83%. The rate of rice transplanting by machine is less than 40% in our country, so the popularization of rice transplanting by machine needs to be strengthened. The following two points are analyzed.
First, the difference between North and South varieties and agronomy makes rice planting rate vary greatly.
In people's impression, the three northeastern provinces as the main production area of one-crop rice a year, the growth period is long, not only the quality of rice is good, but also the whole Mechanization Popularization degree is high. In contrast, the main rice producing areas in southern China still continue the traditional artificial planting mode, and the overall planting rate is very low, even in Hunan, the largest rice planting province in China. Owing to the great differences in climate and soil conditions among different regions, a variety of ecological types, cultivation systems and cultivar maturation systems have been created. According to different classification, rice planting in China has one-cropping system, two-cropping system, three-cropping system and two-year three-cropping system, including single-cropping rice, double-cropping rice, wheat-stubble rice, early rice, middle rice, late rice, japonica rice and indica rice. Hybrid rice and so on.
Agronomically speaking, rice planting can be divided into direct seeding and transplanting, direct seeding can be divided into dry direct seeding and water direct seeding, and water direct seeding can be divided into dry valley direct seeding and bud Valley direct seeding; transplanting can be divided into deep planting and shallow planting, shallow planting can be divided into two basic forms: orderly and disorderly. Among them, direct seeding omits the seedling raising link, and is widely used in rice and wheat areas such as single cropping rice area and Taihu Lake basin, but because of the long direct seeding growth period and slow seedling growth rate, this planting mode is only suitable for one-year-one-cropping rice producing areas; shallow seedling planting mainly in the form of throwing seedlings and dropping seedlings is beneficial to increase yield. But the risk is far greater than that of deep planting with transplanter especially high-speed transplanter as the main operation. At the same time, the pesticide is not only needed to control insects and weeds in rice production process, but also can not meet the requirement of rice harvesting operation in plant spacing, row spacing and foot control, and the yield is uncontrollable by throwing seedlings and direct seeding. Therefore, rice machine insertion is the direction of development. Generally speaking, there are many hilly and mountainous slopes in southern China, and rice varieties, agronomy, planting habits are various, many factors restrict the promotion of the rate of planting.
Second, the promotion of rice transplanting must be guided by the trend of the situation. First, we should start with changing people's planting habits.
The mechanized transplanting of rice in southern China is not only influenced by the landform of cultivated land, but also restricted by people's traditional planting habits. At the same time, double-cropping and multi-cropping rice are the main planting habits in southern China. The matching seedling raising mode and mechanical operation row spacing adapted to single-cropping rice area are different from each other, and needles should be carried out in combination with local agronomy. Compared with throwing or hand transplanting, mechanical transplanting has different requirements on seedlings, and differential seedling raising is also an indispensable link.
In order to increase the rate of rice transplanting by machine, it is necessary to combine agricultural machinery with agronomy, suit local conditions, fully embody the practicability, adaptability, high efficiency and scientific and technological nature of mechanized operation. The relevant government departments should make great efforts to optimize agronomic guidance and support the subsidy policy of purchasing machine, and make every effort to thoroughly solve the agricultural mode and mechanization. Technology is not suited to the status quo. On this basis, rice transplanter production enterprises should focus on solving the problems of product reliability and operation efficiency, providing high cost-effective, high-quality products and high-quality, timely service, combined with the special terrain operation needs of the South, in order to facilitate the handling, convenient operation, perfect functions and other aspects of humanized design and upgrade, to create more. More efficient, low cost and reliable transplanter products help improve rice machine level.