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Low mechanization rate in China and urgent need to make up lessons in facility agriculture

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Low mechanization rate in China and urgent need to make up lessons in facility agriculture

Date:2017-09-15 Author: Click:

"Generally speaking, facility agriculture is an important symbol of modern agriculture, but from the level of operation mechanization, the performance of facility agriculture in China is not satisfactory." Ding Xiaoming, deputy director of the Institute of facilities agriculture, Ministry of agriculture planning and Design Institute, said.

On September 13, at the 2017 China Facility Agricultural Industry Congress held in Zhengzhou, many experts, including Ding Xiaoming, talked about the low level of facility agricultural mechanization. Facility agriculture refers to the use of artificial means to change the natural light and temperature conditions for efficient production of plants and animals, such as greenhouses.

Liu Yunze, director of the Science and Education Department of the Agricultural Mechanization Department of the Ministry of Agriculture, said that the level of Facility Agricultural Mechanization in 2016 was 31.49%, more than 30 percentage points lower than 65% of the comprehensive mechanization level of the main crops, and was still in the primary stage of mechanization. The main crops include rice, wheat, corn and so on.

The low level of comprehensive mechanization coexists with the uneven rate of mechanization in all links of facility agriculture. Ding Xiaoming's bar chart shows that the mechanization rate of the tillage and consolidation links in facility agriculture is 70.6%, while the planting and harvesting links are only 15.2% and 7.7% respectively.

In Ding Xiaoming's view, some objective reality causes the low level of mechanization at present. For example, there are various types of facilities, crop diversity, poor operating conditions, poor ability to pay employees, lack of willingness to buy machines. Among the facilities, only 2% were large and spacious multi-span greenhouses, 33% were sunlight greenhouses, and the remaining 65% were plastic greenhouses.

Dryland plow

"Mechanization operations are more difficult in the" house "than in mechanized operations in the field. In some simple greenhouses, people can't stand upright, and machines can't get in and play their feet. Ding Xiaoming said. In his research, he found that farmers are sensitive to the price of equipment, one of which has two greenhouses, in order to save money, only one greenhouse installed curtain rolling machine, the other by hand pulling.

At the same time, the R & D capability of the relevant enterprises is weak, and it is one of the important reasons for the lack of suitable machines and poor reliability. In the facility agriculture equipment enterprise, Ding Xiaoming has selected 9 relatively high quality enterprises to carry on the research. From 2004 to 2017, only one of the nine companies had 153 patents, while the rest had only double-digit, some even single-digit, patents.

This corresponds to the fact that seven of the awards for outstanding innovative achievements in facility agricultural equipment presented at the conference were finalized. According to the initial design of the award, 15 awards were planned. "On the one hand, it is the first award, the awareness of the award is not high enough, in addition, it also shows that research and development capabilities of related enterprises need to be improved." Ding Xiaoming told ScienceDaily Daily reporters.

Compared with the equipment needed for main crop production, the market of facility agricultural equipment is small. Zhang Yuefeng, chairman of the Facility Agriculture Branch of China Agricultural Mechanization Association, said that the Facility Agriculture Branch has 195 member units, of which only 9 are equipped with equipment enterprises with an annual output value of over 100 million yuan.

There are many kinds of greenhouse vegetables, it is difficult to research general equipment, and the field of each variety is very small. If the enterprise is allowed to research and develop for each single point, the investment is large and the product sales are not large, this also makes the enterprise research and development power is insufficient. In this regard, Ding Xiaoming believes that the government should increase support for research and development of agricultural equipment facilities, enhance the willingness of agricultural machinery enterprises to enter.

Ding Xiaoming is delighted that the "Greenhouse Intelligent Fine Production Technology and Equipment Research and Development" project led by the Planning and Design Research Institute of the Ministry of Agriculture has been included in the national key R&D program "Intelligent Agricultural Machinery Research and Development" in 2017, and started implementation a few days ago. He introduced that the project will be from the greenhouse intelligent fine control, horticultural robots and other directions to carry out research, with the implementation of the project, in the greenhouse intelligent, fine, standardized production operations to achieve new breakthroughs.

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